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Upgrade Guide: 4.3 to 4.4

Note: Upgrades are only supported from one release to the release immediately following it. Do not skip releases.

It is highly recommended that you read through and fully understand this process before attempting it. If you are doing it on a critical or physically remote machine, it is recommended that you test this process on an identical, local system to verify its success before attempting on a critical or remote computer.

Upgrading is a convenient way to bring your OpenBSD system up to the most recent version. However, the results are not intended to precisely match the results of a wipe-and-reload installation. Old library files in particular are not removed in the upgrade process, as they may be required by older applications that may or may not be upgraded at this time. If you REALLY wish to get rid of all these old files, you are probably better off reinstalling from scratch.

Table of Contents:

Before upgrading: things to think about and be aware of

This is not a complete list of the changes that took place between 4.3 and 4.4, but rather some of the important things that will impact a large number of users in the upgrade process. For a more complete list of changes, see plus44.html and the CVS change logs.

The upgrade process

Upgrading by install kernel

If you have access to the system's console, the easiest and safest way to upgrade is to boot from install media or bsd.rd and follow the upgrade steps, which are very similar to the install process. Afterwards, complete the upgrade by following the final steps as detailed below.

One easy way to boot from the install kernel is to place the 4.4 version of bsd.rd in the root of your boot drive, then instruct the boot loader to boot using this new bsd.rd file. On amd64 and i386, you do this by entering "boot bsd.rd" at the initial boot> prompt.

Upgrading without install kernel

This is NOT the recommended process. Use the install kernel method if at all possible!

Sometimes, one needs to do an upgrade of a machine when one can't easily use the normal upgrade process. The most common case is when the machine is in a remote location and you don't have easy access to the system console. One can usually do this by carefully following this process:

During this process, sendmail(8) may produce some error messages like the following:

    Nov 1 12:47:05 puffy sm-mta[16733]: filesys_update failed: No such file or directory, fs=., avail=-1, blocksize=380204

These messages can be safely ignored for the moment, or you may wish to halt sendmail(8) during the upgrade process. Note that sendmail is not working properly at this point, and will need to be restarted (as part of the reboot) before mail is expected to be handled properly.

Final steps

Whether you upgrade by using an install kernel and doing a formal "upgrade" process, or do a "in-place" binary upgrade, there are certain manual steps that have to be performed.

1. New Users and Groups

New users are needed for rtadvd, and the upcoming ypldap(8). Create the users and groups using useradd(8)
useradd -u92 -g=uid -c"IPv6 Router Advertisement Daemon" -d/var/empty -s/sbin/nologin _rtadvd
useradd -u93 -g=uid -c"YP to LDAP Daemon" -d/var/empty -s/sbin/nologin _ypldap

2. Upgrading /etc

You will want to extract the etc44.tgz files to a temporary location:

tar -C /tmp -xzphf ${RELEASEPATH}/etc44.tgz
Files that can probably be copied from etc44.tgz "as is":
Note that it IS possible to locally modify these files, if this has been done, do NOT copy over those files, and use the sysmerge(8) process instead. Pay special attention to mail/* if you are using something other than the default Sendmail(8) configuration. Here are copy/paste lines for copying these files, assuming you unpacked etc44.tgz in the above recommended place:
cd /tmp/etc
cp magic netstart rc rc.conf security services /etc
cp mtree/* /etc/mtree
cp mail/*.cf /etc/mail # Careful on this one!!

3a. Merging locally changed files via a patch file

Use either this patch file process OR the sysmerge process below, not both.

These files likely have local changes, but should be updated for 4.4. IF you have not altered these files, you can copy over the new version, otherwise the changes must be merged with your files:

The changes to these files are in this patch file. You can attempt to use this by executing the following as root:
cd /
patch -C -p0 < upgrade44.patch
This will test the patch to see how well it will apply to YOUR system; to actually apply it, leave off the "-C" option. Note that it is likely that if you have customized files or not kept them closely updated, or are upgrading from a snapshot of 4.3, they may not accept the patch cleanly. In those cases, you will need to manually apply the changes. Please test this process before relying on it for a machine you can not easily get to.

The following files have had changes which should be looked at, but it is unlikely they should be directly copied or merged (i.e., if you are using pf.conf, look at the suggested change of strategy, and decide if it is appropriate for your use).


There is a file that can be deleted as it is no longer used in 4.4:

rm /etc/dhcpd.interfaces
Finally, use newaliases(8) to update the aliases database, mtree(8) create any new directories:
mtree -qdef /etc/mtree/4.4BSD.dist -p / -u

3b. Merging locally changed files via sysmerge(8)

Use either this sysmerge(8) process, OR the patchfile process above, not both.

The new sysmerge(8) utility will compare the files that are actually on your system with those that would be installed to a fresh install, and assist you in merging the changes into your system. Note that unlike the patch file, there are no assumptions made about what is actually on your system, so you can use sysmerge(8) to move between more arbitrary points in the development process, such as from an earlier -current to 4.4-release or from one -current to a later one.

Please read the sysmerge(8) manual page before using it on your system. You are also advised to read the diff(1), sdiff(1) and even review more(1) manual pages before continuing.

Assuming the etc44.tgz and xetc44.tgz files exists in your $RELEASEPATH, run it with:

# sudo sysmerge -as $RELEASEPATH/etc44.tgz -x $RELEASEPATH/xetc44.tgz
Sysmerge(8) will show you a unified diff(1), run through your favorite $PAGER (i.e., more(1)) and ask you, for most changed files, if you wish to:
  Use 'd' to delete the temporary ./var/www/htdocs/index.html
  Use 'i' to install the temporary ./var/www/htdocs/index.html
  Use 'm' to merge the temporary and installed versions
  Use 'v' to view the diff results again

  Default is to leave the temporary file to deal with by hand

If you wish to retain your existing file, delete the temporary file, if you wish to replace your existing file with the new version, install the temporary file. If you wish to merge the two together, chosing 'm' will put you into sdiff(1), where you can manually merge the file. The default is to come back and deal with the file later, manually.

While it can work, we do not recommend you use sysmerge to integrate new users into the system, but rather use the useradd(8) line above. We believe it is much less error prone. (hint: do not install the temporary master.passwd file over your existing one!).

Sysmerge(8) saves all your replaced files into a temporary directory, similar to /var/tmp/sysmerge.24959/backups, so if you accidentally clobber something that was probably not such a good idea, you have a chance to recover it. Note that daily(8) cleans old files from this directory.

4. Checking the kernel

Note: most people can skip this step!

If you followed the instructions for the upgrade process without install kernel, you have already completed this step. However, if you used the install kernel, and if you had a modified kernel in 4.3, it is likely you will need to modify the stock kernel of 4.4. This can be as simple as modifying a specific device using config(8), or it can involve a recompilation if the option you need is not included in the GENERIC kernel. Please consult FAQ 5 - Building the system from source before considering to recompile your kernel.

5. Upgrading packages

If you installed any packages on your system, you should upgrade them after completing the upgrade of the base system. Be aware, however, many packages will require further setup before and/or after upgrading the package. Check with the application's upgrade guide for details.

The following packages are known to have significant upgrade issues that will impact a large number of users. The fact that a package is not on this list doesn't mean it will have a trivial upgrade. You must do some homework on the applications YOU use.

The package tools support in-place updating using pkg_add -u. For instance, to update all your packages, make sure PKG_PATH is pointing to the 4.4 packages directory on your CD or nearest FTP mirror, and use something like

# pkg_add -ui -F update -F updatedepends
where the -u indicates update mode, and -i specifies interactive mode, so pkg_add will prompt you for input when it encounters some ambiguity. Read the pkg_add(1) manual page and the package management chapter of the FAQ for more information.

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$OpenBSD: upgrade44.html,v 1.32 2015/07/08 01:11:32 nick Exp $