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5 - Differences from other BSD Projects


Table of Contents


5.1 - Important differences from other BSD projects

NetBSD uses the term ports for architecture-dependent issues. Their ports structure is called pkgsrc instead.

5.2 - Extra support

The porting infrastructure includes several scripts under infrastructure/bin that facilitate the creation of new ports:
check-lib-depends
invoked through make lib-depends-check, to verify shared libraries dependencies.
update-patches
invoked through make update-patches, which should always be used to regenerate patches.
make-plist
invoked through make update-plist. This takes care of most of the finest points of crafting accurate packing-lists. OpenBSD packing-lists are significantly different from those of other BSD projects, in part because the package tools have been completely rewritten.
and other stuff as well. Most of these scripts are documented, the manpages are under infrastructure/man.

5.3 - Generic infrastructure issues

OpenBSD's make(1) supports ${VAR:U} and ${VAR:L} to transform a variable's value into uppercase or lowercase. Accordingly, make tests should be coded in a case-independent way, e.g.,

.if ${NEED_XXX:L} == "yes"
do stuff if yes
.else
do other stuff
.endif

In theory, all boolean variables recognized by bsd.port.mk should always be defined, so that code like defined(USE_FOO) should not be necessary, and ${USE_FOO:L} != "no" ought to work.

The main bsd.port.mk file has been heavily streamlined and fixed. In particular, it is parallel-make ready. The scripts/{pre,do,post}-* feature has been lost in the process. To replace that feature, invoke the script manually from the Makefile.

5.4 - Using make properly

Note that, if you invoke make as make VAR=value, the assignment will override whatever value VAR may get from the Makefile. So, many Makefile patches are not necessary, it is much better to set MAKE_FLAGS correctly, to decrease the maintenance burden.

5.5 - Fetching sources

There are two kinds of source archives: DISTFILES and PATCHFILES. OpenBSD processes them in a uniform way, and retrieves everything from MASTER_SITES by default. There are no PATCH_SITES nor PATCH_SITES_SUBDIR.

If all files to fetch don't come from the same set of sites, OpenBSD allows the extension filename:0 to filename:9, in which case it will use MASTER_SITES0 to MASTER_SITES9 to retrieve the file.

Some architectures may need specific distfiles. In the past, this has caused trouble where mirroring distfiles was concerned. OpenBSD supports a third set of files: SUPDISTFILES. Those will be considered only for creating checksums and mirroring purposes. Note that SUPDISTFILES may have an overlap with DISTFILES or PATCHFILES. For instance,

DISTFILES=foo-1.0.tgz
.if ${ARCH} == "i386"
DISTFILES+=foo-i386.tgz
.elif ${ARCHI} == "sparc"
DISTFILES+=foo-sparc.tgz
.endif
SUPDISTFILES=foo-i386.tgz foo-sparc.tgz

5.6 - The WRKDIR infrastructure

We don't want ports that use NO_WRKDIR. All OpenBSD ports must have a work directory. Naming details of those work directories should not be a porter's concerns. If you need to find out about such a name, ask the Makefile:

$ cd that_ports_dir && make show=WRKDIR
will yield that port's idea of WRKDIR.

The main reason behind that prohibition is that OpenBSD's bsd.port.mk acts like a real Makefile, with dependencies. The fetch stage depends upon the distfiles and patchfiles, all other stages depend on real files living in the working directory (cookies), so they can't exist without a working directory.

If the DISTFILES extraction is special, set

EXTRACT_ONLY=

and do the extraction in post-extract.

WRKDIR
The port working directory, where it puts its own cookies.
WRKDIST
Subdirectory of WRKDIR where the port actually unpacks. It is also the base directory for patch. Other BSDs currently don't have the WRKDIST/WRKSRC distinction and have only WRKSRC.
WRKSRC
Subdirectory of WRKDIST where the actual source lives.
WRKBUILD
Subdirectory of WRKDIR where the port configure and build will occur. Other BSDs don't have the WRKBUILD/WRKSRC distinction. Programs based on autoconf (mostly) can usually set SEPARATE_BUILD to let the port build happen in a WRKBUILD distinct from WRKSRC.
WRKCONF
Subdirectory of WRKDIR where configure scripts should be run. Defaults to WRKBUILD, which is correct 99% of the time.
WRKINST
Directory where the port will be installed before being packaged (see Faking ports below).

Note that NO_WRKSUBDIR has been removed: its functionality can be achieved by setting WRKDIST=$(WRKDIR) instead.

5.7 - Fake port installation

5.7.1 - Introduction

After a build is complete, other BSDs proceed to install a port, then build a package from the installed port. OpenBSD uses faked installation instead.

5.7.2 - Advantages

5.7.3 - How to do it

The targets invoked for make fake are the usual install targets, except for a few differences:

Ports using imake should work as is, since the imake fragments are configured to use DESTDIR. Similarly, recent GNU configure ports should need no change.

Another good technique is a `late binding' trick: configure the ports to use a prefix of $(DESTDIR)/usr/local, so that the resulting Makefile has

prefix=$(DESTDIR)/usr/local

set. When the port gets built, since DESTDIR is set to nothing, /usr/local is used. And the fake install will put everything into ${WRKINST}/usr/local (e.g., for GNU configure, use CONFIGURE_STYLE= gnu dest).

5.7.4 - Pitfalls

5.8 - Packaging tools

The package tools know about quite a few file types, and can do a lot of things automatically: in most cases @exec commands or INSTALL scripts are unneeded.

Note that all unneeded scripts should be banned, as they have scalability issues. It is much easier to debug one single package infrastructure than to modify hundreds of scripts to handle new problems.

For instance:

Refer to pkg_create(1) for more details. In most cases, make update-plist will write a very good approximation of a complete packing-list, and will carry hand-made tweaks from one version to the next.

5.9 - Flavors

Options have been rationalized as flavors, so that package building can be consistent. A port with options should set FLAVORS to the list of all options that make sense for that port (e.g., FLAVORS=foo bar zoinx), then use FLAVOR to test what options have actually been selected (e.g., FLAVOR=zoinx foo). bsd.port.mk provides some support:

Checking that a given flavor has been selected is as simple as:

.if ${FLAVOR:L:Mzoinx}
There is an extra extension, known as MULTI_PACKAGES. Generally speaking, MULTI_PACKAGES and FLAVORS are orthogonal mechanisms. Together, they account for OpenBSD ports tree being somewhat smaller than the other BSDs, as they allow one single port directory to build lots of distinct packages. bsd.port.mk(5) has a full section devoted to FLAVORS AND MULTI_PACKAGES.

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